Not all frogs jump alike – the evolution of landing in frogs

Well, at least they don’t land alike – some prefer a nose-dive style! A group of researchers led by Dr. Rick Essner, from the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, have recorded the jumping styles of different frogs in slow-motion and found that some frogs, more specifically the ones belonging to the Leiopelmatidae family, don’t know how to land like most frogs. Interestingly, Leiopelmatidae is the basal-most living frog family, indicating frogs first learned how to jump, and only later in their evolutionary history did they develop a way to land that didn’t involve a head or belly flop. Here is a link to their paper.

The Leiopelmatidae:


The frogs we are accustomed to seeing, and that we used to chase when we were kids, have a typical jump that works like this: first there is a propulsion to get the body off ground, then half-way through, the body and limbs will flex in preparation for landing. This mid-air flexion is what prevents them from a head-first collision.

Screen Shot 2014-11-04 at 6.23.07 PM

All frogs (order Anura) can be divided in two main classifications, the basal-most Leiopelmatidae and all other frogs, Lalagobatrachia (Frost et al, 2006). These two groups diverged around 225 million years ago (Roelans and Bossuyt, 2005). The Leiopelmatidae were particularly interesting for this study because according to Dr. Essner they “retained central and behavioral features that are evolutionary informative”. Dr. Essner and his group already knew that these basal frogs swim differently than others. They do a trot-like rather than a kick-like swim. This trot-like style is characterized by asynchronous movement of the hindlimb, while in the kick-like one, frogs extend and flex both their hindlimbs together, which is what all other frogs do. That suggested to the researches that maybe there were other differences in how these frogs moved. So, they set out to test how they jumped and landed. They analyzed slow-motion video footage from five species, three basal leiopelmatidae, Ascaphus montanus, the Rocky Mountain tailed frog, Leiopelma pakeka and L. hochstetteri; and two lalagobatrachians, Bombina orientalis and Lithobates pipiens.


Amphibian Tree of Life, including caecilians, salamanders and all frogs. Not the first frog family is Leiopelmatidae. From

The Lalagobatrachia frogs they observed all had a similar jumping pattern where the “aerial phase [is] characterized by mid-air body and limb rotation in preparation for landing. […] Limb recovery involves protraction, adduction, and extension of the forelimbs, placing them in position to absorb impact forces”. We can call the lalagobatrachians derived frogs, a reference to their more recent placement in the Anuran phylogeny.  The Leiopelamtidae, however, didn’t come programed to flex their hindlimb mid-air, and therefore, land in a belly-flop, abdomen (and sometimes nose) first, and skid to a stop. Like in this video from their study:

Poor guy, but I don’t blame you if you replay that video a couple of times.

Such a simple maneuver, you would think, to flex you limbs before you have to skid your way through a stop. Maybe the art of jumping and landing had evolved together. Apparently not in frogs. The fact that the most basal lineages can’t perform such maneuver indicates that frogs first evolved how to jump, and the landing skills were only developed much later on, in the ancestrals of the lalagobatrachian frogs. According to the authors: “The switch to lalagobatrachian landing and swimming behavior appears to have involved a simple evolutionary change in the timing of limb muscle motor patterns, shifting the onset of hindlimb flexors to an earlier point in the stride cycle.” There seems to be no difference in the morphology of these frogs that could influence how they land, and what makes a difference is simply the timing of their limbs flexion.

“All else being equal, if A. montanus shifted the onset of recovery so that flexion began at mid-flight it would land on its limbs like other frogs.” – Essner et al.

It is worth mentioning that these basal frogs are tiny, as you can see in the picture below where the for is next to a dime. Their smaller size probably helps in their rough landing. They also have large, shield-shaped cartilages, which could soften the uncontrolled landing.

Ascaphus montanus next to a dime. Photo from

Ascaphus montanus next to a dime. Photo from

By now you could be thinking: how did jumping evolve, and is there any relation of how these frogs differ in how they land to primitive terrestrial fishes, or did jumping evolve independently more than once? Well, we don’t know it, but Dr. Essner and his collaborators are currently investigating how jumping involved in anurans.

A very important point to be taken from their work is that when looking at morphological traits to understand evolutionary history, we tend to ignore behavioral aspects that may involve multiple ways of using the same available structures. This paper proves that to make an engine work, it takes much more than just having the right tools.

For more information, read the article: Essner, Richard L, Daniel J Suffian, Phillip J Bishop, and Stephen M Reilly. 2010. “Landing in Basal Frogs: Evidence of Saltational Patterns in the Evolution of Anuran Locomotion.” Naturwissenschaften 97 (10): 935–39. doi:10.1007/s00114-010-0697-4.

Photo courtesy of Dr. Essner.

Photo courtesy of Dr. Essner.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s